The following points highlight the twelve main requirements of higher egg production of birds. The requirements are: 1. Quality Birds 2. Crowding 3. Feeding 4. Watering 5. Vaccination 6. Debeaking 7. Culling 8. Health 9. Sanitation 10. Egg Quality 11. Records 12. Routine Checking.

Requirement # 1. Quality Birds:

The strain that will perform best and is known to have good livability under reasonable environmental conditions is to be chosen. Good chicks cost more but they perform better.

Requirement # 2. Crowding:


Overcrowding increases mortality, stress as well as production cost.

Requirement # 3. Feeding:

Adequate fresh feed is to be given. Birds that are without feed for six hours will record a drop in production and a 12 hour starvation will result in moult of wing feathers. There should be adequate feeder space for the birds.

Feed wastaging should be avoided. Maintaining records of daily feed-consumption is essential. It will enable to deter­mine feed utilization and bird’s performance.


Requirement # 4. Watering:

Plentiful and clean disinfected water is to be provided. This management factor is com­monly violated. Water restriction is a quick way to accidentally forcing the flock to moult. The waters are to be so placed such that they are easily accessible to birds.

Requirement # 5. Vaccination:

All birds are to be vaccinated for Marek’s Disease and Ranikhet Disease. Birds not vaccinated are highly susceptible to these diseases.


Requirement # 6. Debeaking:

Proper debeaking programmes are to be undertaken, as poor debeaking can adversely affect egg production.

Requirement Necessity # 7. Culling:

Unsuitable and uneconomic birds should be timely culled.

Requirement Necessity # 8. Health:

Early signs of disease should be spotted for its timely treatment before it flares up in a big way.

Some of the symptoms that indicate the onset of disease are:

(1) Drop in egg production and feed consumption;

(2) Increased morbidity and mortality;


(3) Inactivity and lack of vigour;

(4) Droopy ruffled appearance and respiratory distress, and

(5) Sudden changes in egg quality.

Requirement # 9. Sanitation:

Sanitary measures are of vital impor­tance in poultry operation. Roundworms, tapeworms and caecal worms are to be kept under control. Exter­nal parasites are a serious farm hazard and can reduce production, if unchecked. Deworming at regular intervals should be practised.

Requirement # 10. Egg Quality:

Respiratory and intestinal diseases should be kept under control for keeping of the quality of egg shells. Indiscriminate use of sulpha drugs can affect the egg shell quality. The use of tetracycline can, however, improve it.

Requirement # 11. Records:

A daily record of feed consumption, egg production, mortality, income and expenditure is essential to help improve farming efficiency and pinpoint area of troubles and their solutions.

Requirement # 12. Routine Checking:

Critical items of manage­ment should be listed on a daily, weekly or seasonal check list. Every item must be checked. It helps to locate the cause of trouble when it occurs. Routine checks are—Cleaning and refilling of waterers and feeders; cleaning the house and spraying insecticide; stirring the litter; dusting; culling of birds; egg collec­tion, etc.