In this article we will discuss about the reproductive system of toad.

Sexes are separate. Sexual dimorphism is present in toad. During breeding season, a cushion-like thumb pad appears at the base of each innermost finger of the hand of male. Male is provided with a vocal sac opening into the buccal cavity. The impression of the vocal sac can be seen from outside.

During breeding season abdomenZoology, Chordate Classification, Amphibians, Toad, Reproductive System of Toad of females become distended to accommodate the increasing number of eggs. In both the sexes, several yellowish outgrowths called fat bodies are present anterior to the kidneys. The fat bodies are the storehouse of fatty substances which are utilised during hibernation and also during germ cell formation.

Female Reproductive System:


The female reproductive system consists of two ovaries and two oviducts. Each ovary is an irregular much folded sac and is attached with the ven­tral side of the kidney by a thin fold of mem­brane called mesovarium. During breeding season, the ovaries become greatly enlarged.

The female gonoduct (or oviduct) is a very long coiled tube and is placed on the lateral side of the body. Each oviduct is differentiated into three parts (Fig. 1.78A). Anteriorly, the oviduct opens directly into coelom by a funnel like opening called oviducal funnel. So oviduct has got no direct connection with the ovary.

The median portion is extensively coiled and glandular. The posterior part becomes dilated to act as a thin-walled uterus (or ovisac). The two uteri unite to form a common median tube which, in turn, opens to the dor­sal side of the cloacal chamber. The eggs, after maturation, are discharged into the oviduct through the opening of the oviducal funnel.

Male Reproductive System:


The male repro­ductive system comprises of two elongated white bodies called testes (Fig. 1.78B). Each testis is attached with the ventral side of the kidney by a thin fold of membrane called mesorchium. Each testis is made up of a collection of fine seminiferous tubules which manufacture spermatozoa or male germ cells. The seminiferous tubules are connected with the collecting tubules of kidney by fine ducts called vasa efferentia.

The vasa efferentia open into the ureter, which in the male, is known as the urinogenital duct. Through the urinogenital duct, both the male gametes and urine are poured into the cloaca. Just in front of the testis and attached to the anterior end of each kidney, there is a small rounded body called Bidder’s organ. Its function is still unknown.